2. Genetic mutations

Mutation: A change in the nucleotide sequence of genetic material, whether by substitution, duplication, insertion, deletion or inversion.
  • Chromosomal mutations: rearrangements of segments into the same chromosome or interchange between more than one.
    • Deletion
    • Inversion
    • Translocation

  • Gene mutations (Point mutations): individual changes in the sequence of nucleotides that may cause the appearance of new alleles of a gene.
    • Substitution
    • Insertion or addition
    • Deletion or removal